Peace First at the Horseshoe Table

Germany brings diplomatic weight to the UN Security Council, to which it was elected on 8th June. The German government should use this advantage to support mediation and peace processes as priorities of its two-year membership. It should focus on three central instruments in this regard: refining sanctions, accountability of troop contributing countries, as well as the organization of more flexible visiting missions by Security Council diplomats.

This text was first published on the PeaceLab Blog. It is also available in German.

764925 German FM Maas after election to UNSC 2018.jpg
German Foreign Minister Heiko Maas at UN Headquarters after Germany’s election to the UN Security Council for 2019/2020, 8 June 2018 (c) UN Photo.

Every eight years, Germany joins the playing field of major powers at the United Nations. Newly elected members to the UN Security Council like Germany have to prove themselves vis-à-vis the five permanent members every time anew. In the midst of political quarrels about the use of chemical weapons in Syria and the daily management of peace operations, the attention on the core purpose of the Council, to maintain international peace and security, gets lost all too easily. Germany should thus strive to strengthen peace processes and mediation efforts through the Security Council.

Germany is an unusually resourceful non-permanent member

Non-permanent members of the Security Council only have limited influence. The veto power of China, France, Russia, the UK, and the USA is not the only reason for that. Those countries also possess continuous experience in the negotiations, issues, and countries that shape the Council’s agenda. In this game of major powers, smaller members might at most be able to build bridges, improve working methods, or make small substantial suggestions.

As fourth largest financial contributor to the UN’s regular budget and, despite deficits, an important actor on the diplomatic floor, Germany needs to aim higher. In a number of countries on the Security Council’s agenda, German diplomats already play a substantial role. In those cases, the German government should use its membership in the Council as an additional diplomatic forum, whose approaches and instruments have their own benefits. Together with its European partners Germany can, for example, promote the maintenance of the nuclear agreement with Iran, demand humanitarian access and accountability for war crimes in Syria, prepare a peace operation in Ukraine, support the negotiations with the Taliban in Afghanistan, and shape the reconstruction of liberated areas in Iraq. Germany already has a leading position in all these contexts due to its existing channels and contacts – this should be reflected in the Security Council.

Peace operations need to be guided by a political strategy

Reaching consensus among its members on the overarching political objectives that should guide its crisis management is probably the biggest challenge for the Security Council. The High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations (HIPPO) already demanded in its seminal 2015 report that peace operations should always follow a political strategy. Otherwise they run the risk of being driven by military considerations, and of falling prey to the diverging interests of the conflict parties. In fragile contexts such as Mali, the Democratic Republic of Congo or South Sudan, there are incessant threats to the civilian population that can justify international protection measures, as the former UN staff member Ralph Mamiya observes. Yet without a political process, there can be no structuring priorities that could guide the strategic deployment of scarce resources and a foreseeable withdrawal of international troops.

Naturally, there are manifest reasons for the lack of political strategies in the UN Security Council. For one thing, these are genuinely difficult questions without obvious and easy solutions. Moreover, the work of the Council relies on hard-fought compromises, which result in frequently vague or complicated language. Furthermore, in some situations, such as in South Sudan, there is no functioning peace agreement that could guide the actions of a peace operation.

Germany should encourage strategic thinking in the Security Council

Germany cannot remove these structural deficits in two years. Neither does it have the diplomatic capacities to work out a strategy for each situation on the Security Council’s agenda . The German government thus needs to set clear priorities. German diplomats can encourage the Security Council to think more strategically. The more interactive and informal the discussions before the proper negotiations are, the more fruitful the latter  are in many cases.

The German government could take its cue from Sweden, which, together with Peru, organized a retreat for all ambassadors in the Security Council this year. The Permanent Mission in New York can also organize events at the sidelines of official meetings and informal briefings in line with the Arria formula. This would bring the perspectives of civil society organizations of affected countries as well as experts on current mediation and negotiation processes to Manhattan. Lastly, Germany could organize a thematic debate on the contribution of the whole UN system to peace processes during one of its two monthly presidencies of the Security Council. This debate should address the limitations of the Security Council head on and tackle its cooperation with other UN entities such as special envoys, special rapporteurs, and the UN Development Program.

Using clear listing criteria for targeted sanctions

The improvement of the Council’s working atmosphere and quality of discussion aside, Germany should focus its “peace first” attention on three core instruments of the Security Council: refining targeted sanctions, the accountability of troop contributing countries, as well as the organization of more flexible visiting missions by Security Council diplomats.

The Security Council maintains 14 sanctions regimes, some of which explicitly aim to support peace and transition processes, for example in South Sudan, Mali, or Libya. Theoretically, such sanctions should not primarily punish individuals, but incentivize them to participate in peace processes in a constructive manner through travel bans and asset freezes. In reality, the restraints of those sanctions are often too slow and too backwards-oriented to actually influence mediation efforts substantially. Germany has contributed to the reform of UN sanctions since the late 1990s. As a member of the sanctions committees (and chair of some of them), it should promote the implementation of clear listing and delisting criteria in every single case.

Vetting troop contributing countries

Hardly anything is as damaging to the reputation of UN peace operations as incidents of sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA), as well as a lack of readiness to act decisively to protect civilians  at risk in their vicinity. Secretary-General António Guterres has already introduced important reforms in this area. Yet, German Ambassador Christoph Heusgen, when asked about his plans to tackle the issue in the Security Council at a recent event in New York , could only think of the inclusion of more women in troop contingents. However, a more stringent and systematic vetting of all troop contingents regarding their previous human rights records in domestic settings, would be more important in this context. The deployment of 49 non-vetted Sri Lankan soldiers in Lebanon this year demonstrated that the current UN procedures are not sufficient.

Using its increased credibility as troop contributor in Mali, Germany should promote stronger accountability of all troop contributing countries. Based on an existing Security Council resolution, the UN secretary-general should ban states that do not sufficiently investigate allegations of sexual exploitations and abuse against their soldiers from future missions until they improve their procedures. Similarly, performance assessments of troop contingents, such as the ones requested by the Security Council for the UN Mission in South Sudan after a special review, should also be conducted for  all other missions.

Make visiting missions more flexible and geared towards crisis management

German diplomats like to point out that they would prioritize conflict prevention in the Security Council. Rarely do they go into the details of the Council’s added value in political crises – and where it might be counterproductive. One important instrument for early crisis management are visiting missions of Security Council diplomats. Under the leadership of up to three members, representatives of all 15 member states fly to a region to talk to the relevant actors on the ground.

Germany should prepare and lead such a mission if the opportunity presents itself. Potential destinations could be Sudan or South Sudan, where Germany has supported dialogue and mediation processes. At the same time, Germany should strive for more flexible mission formats, which could deploy a small delegation of the Security Council and key UN officials more quickly.

Stand up for peace and prevention

A stronger focus on the promotion of peace and transition processes in the Security Council will meet resistance. China, Russia, and a number of member states from the Global South are quick to refer to state sovereignty in the context of international mediation efforts in authoritarian states. The Trump administration in the United States undermines diplomatic processes on Iran and Syria and moves to cut the budget of UN peace operations even in places where violence and conflict are on the rise as in the Democratic Republic of Congo. As former colonial powers, the UK and France hold back on Cameroon, while the conflict about the Anglophone areas is escalating.

With its ambition to promote peace and conflict prevention, Germany must not shy away from conflicts in the Security Council. At the same time, it should rely on stable partnerships and frequent exchange with its European partners as well as countries like South Africa. The latter will also be a member of the Security Council from 2019 and started pursueing more multilateral solutions under President Cyril Ramophosa.

At the end of its membership in the Council, the German government should order an independent evaluation of its diplomacy around the horseshoe table. The objective: learning lessons for its next candidacy to join the playing field of major powers.

Focus on atrocity prevention, not R2P

Written evidence to the UK House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee for its Inquiry on “Responsibility to Protect and humanitarian intervention”. The final report cites my evidence.

Executive Summary

  • The main value of R2P was as an impetus to conceptual and political debates as well as a tool for policy entrepreneurs to galvanize public attention, mainly in domestic contexts.
  • R2P has not substantially changed the existence of global power inequalities, domestic incentives for foreign policy making, or the proclivity of violent actors to use force indiscriminately if it suits their objectives.
  • There are no generalized exemptions from the prohibition on the use of force outside the UN Charter. Any General Assembly resolution could only provide an, albeit strong, political signal of legitimacy, not a legal one.
  • In UN debates and diplomacy, the concept of R2P should be retired and replaced by a more operational focus on atrocity prevention.
  • The UK can make use of the notion of “universal jurisdiction” to prepare cases against foreign individuals responsible for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. With the central position of the UK in the global financial system, it could also engage more forcefully in combating money laundering by elites that are responsible for such crimes.
  • The UK should include explicit assessments of atrocity risks, including identity-based violence, in its country strategies.



  1. I am a PhD candidate at the Department of War Studies, King’s College London as well as a non-resident fellow at the Global Public Policy Institute (GPPi), an independent Berlin-based think tank. Between 2012 and 2015, I was involved in a major international research project entitled “Global Norm Evolution and the Responsibility to Protect”, which brought together seven international partner institutions from Europe as well as Brazil, China, and India and was coordinated at GPPi. The main objective of the research project was to investigate how the idea of a Responsibility to Protect (R2P) was faring in the context of a changing global order. All our academic and policy publications are accessible on the following website:
  2. This submission builds on that research, as well as my research on the diplomacy of conflict prevention and peacemaking in the context of my PhD project since then. While it builds on collaborative research, it only represents the views of the author and not necessarily any of the institutions that I am affiliated with. Taking the questions posed by the Committee as a starting point, the submission starts with a discussion of the concept of R2P and what (not) to expect from it. It then highlights a few issues with the implementation of the political commitment to R2P globally. Subsequently, the submission discusses the idea of a “humanitarian intervention”, before it concludes with ideas and recommendations for reform of the discourse and practice of R2P.

The concept of the Responsibility to Protect

  1. The adoption of the three paragraphs on R2P in the World Summit outcome document of 2005 needs to be seen in its proper historical context (UN General Assembly 2005, para. 138-140). It was a response to the heated discussions of the preceding one and a half decades. These are well known and include the acknowledgement of catastrophic failures faced with genocide in Rwanda and ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s as well as the divisions in the Security Council regarding the situation in the Kosovo in 1999. The creation of R2P included an important conceptual shift from earlier debates about “humanitarian intervention”: instead of focussing on the rights of intervening powers, R2P highlighted the responsibilities of all UN member states to prevent atrocity crimes (International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty 2001). Instead of explicitly qualifying state sovereignty, it emphasized the sovereign responsibility of governments for the protection of their populations from atrocity crimes (Evans 2008).
  2. R2P is a political commitment by UN member states, not a legal one. Endorsed by a then record number of heads of state and government, the World Summit outcome document has a high legitimacy, but does not constitute international legal obligations comparable to an international treaty. Notably, it does not change the existing legal context for the use of force under the UN Charter. The use of “timely and decisive action” remains firmly tied to the UN Security Council.
  3. The main value of R2P was as an impetus to conceptual and political debates as well as a tool for policy entrepreneurs to galvanize public attention. After its adoption, UN officials sought to operationalize its meaning and implications for the UN system (Murthy and Kurtz 2016). The work by subsequent UN Special Advisors on the Responsibility to Protect as well as UN Special Advisors on the Prevention of Genocide is particularly pertinent in this regard. As a result of detailed interpretation and wide-ranging consultations, Edward Luck, the first UN Special Advisor on the Responsibility to Protect, developed the three-pillar framework of R2P: government responsibility, international assistance, and timely and decisive action (UN Secretary-General 2009). This framework has since structured conceptual debates among member states about R2P.
  4. The three-pillar framework has allowed a comprehensive focus: by including the essentially uncontested responsibilities under pillars one and two, it made it easier to also discuss much more controversial policy options if governments are “manifestly failing” to protect their populations. Exactly because coercive measures are contested among UN member states, however, relatively few official debates and reports capitalized on that opportunity.
  5. At the same time, controversies on the utility – and abuse – of the use of force could taint the overall concept. Nowhere has this been clearer than in the aftermath of the decision of the Security Council to mandate UN member states to use “all necessary means” to protect civilians in Libya in March 2011 (UN Security Council 2011). As the oral testimony to the committee also acknowledged, the interveners’ shift from a narrow focus on protecting civilians in Benghazi to a much wider demand for regime change in Libya (Obama, Cameron and Sarkozy 2011) seriously undermined the credibility of R2P in the eyes of a global audience (Brockmeier, Stuenkel and Tourinho 2016).
  6. As a tool for policy entrepreneurs, R2P has allowed civil society organisations and members of parliament to refer to their respective government’s responsibility to engage in political debates about adequate action to respond to atrocity crimes – the current inquiry is a case in point. It has provided civil society organisations with a way to frame their demands for diplomatic, humanitarian, human rights, and judicial engagement by pointing to a political commitment that all governments have signed up to on a global level. The Global Center on R2P, for example, is a New York-based NGO dedicated to the implementation and promotion of R2P. The International Coalition for the Responsibility to Protect brings together civil society organizations from around the world with a shared objective. The efforts of these organisations increase awareness among policymakers, officials, and the general public for atrocity crimes, they provide analysis and regular country monitoring, and organize training and capacity building events.
  7. On the global level, our research found that R2P has not been an effective tool to mobilize action between 2004 and 2014. Where there was international agreement, visible through UN Security Council actions, the frame of “genocide” and historical analogies to Rwanda and Srebrenica were much more powerful than references to R2P – including in the decision by Western powers to intervene in Libya in 2011 (Kurtz and Rotmann 2016: 6). No draft Security Council resolution is more likely to be adopted by consensus just because it contains a reference to R2P.
  8. R2P has not resolved geopolitical divisions in the UN Security Council, nor has it made international responses in the most protracted cases of atrocities more likely. The expectation, where it exists, that a political concept like R2P could in and of itself solve some of the most contested questions in international relations and drive political action, is too high. Any idea about an international legal obligation for member states to intervene in situations where atrocities are committed creates unreasonable expectations of international law and global politics. No government can be expected to commit troops on behalf of another country’s population without domestic considerations on a case-by-case basis. Furthermore, it is rarely clear which specific international actions would be effective and proportional to prevent atrocities in a given situation.

The implementation of R2P

  1. Where the salience of a situation has been very high for the permanent members of the UN Security Council, consensus has remained difficult to achieve. The situation in Syria illustrates this dynamic well. Again, R2P has not substantially changed the existence of global power inequalities, domestic incentives for foreign policy making, or the proclivity of violent actors to use force indiscriminately if it suits their objectives.
  2. The inclusion of R2P in the World Summit outcome document was a manifestation of a larger underlying normative change. This normative evolution has also been visible in related fields of the universality of human rights, the development of international criminal law, and in the debate about “protection” in humanitarian action and peacekeeping. R2P should be seen as an instrument in the promotion and contestation of these “norms of protection” (Kurtz and Rotmann 2016: 18). The carriers of this normative evolution have come from all corners of the earth, including from Africa, where most of today’s conflicts take place. As our research project on global debates about the meaning and interpretation of R2P has shown, there is a very wide acceptance of the fundamental normative tenet of R2P: atrocity crimes require international action. How such action may look like in practice, has remained less clear unfortunately (Benner et al. 2015).
  3. The evolution of those norms does not follow a linear path, but they do shape the social context in which international politics takes place. Research has shown, for example, that the ratification of the Rome Statute and investigative actions by the International Criminal Court exerts a deterrent effect on the commission of atrocity crimes (Jo and Simmons 2016).
  4. Inconsistency, hypocrisy, and contradictions undermine the evolution of norms of protection as well as the credibility of R2P. Policymakers should devote greater attention to the permissive effects of their statements and policies in this area. The focus on “red lines” on the use of chemical weapons in Syria, for example, by President Obama and, more recently, by President Macron, not only set their users up to follow through on their threats. They also gave the impression that atrocities committed by conventional means are somewhat more acceptable. Even if governments denounce the killing of civilians rhetorically, such ultimatums and threats send a contradicting message.
  5. A similar permissive effect could be observed regarding narrowing action in Syria against ISIS/Da’esh, thus sparing the Syrian regime. In 2014, when the US government, in conjunction with its allies, took the decision to militarily intervene against ISIS/Da’esh, it may have been too late to broaden the intervention to include anti-regime actions (Yacoubian 2017: 27). A more detailed investigation of the permissive effects of this decision on the dynamics of the Syrian civil war notwithstanding, the focus on counterterrorism risked sending a signal that massive violence against civilians by the Syrian government did not attract the same kind of coercive punishment as the violence committed by ISIS/Da’esh.
  6. Similarly, continuing support to the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen, including by arms exports, undermines the UK’s credibility on atrocity prevention in Yemen. British military support to the Saudi-led coalition also undermines UK aid and diplomacy for a political solution in Yemen, as such support empowers a military approach to the crisis. As the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (2017) said in September 2017, “[c]oalition airstrikes continue to be the leading cause of civilian casualties, including of children.” The UK should immediately halt all arms exports to Saudi Arabia and all other members of the coalition involved in the war in Yemen.

The idea of a “humanitarian intervention”

  1. The committee asked for evidence on the question whether the concept of a “humanitarian intervention” was recognized as an exemption to the general prohibition of the use of force under the UN Charter. I am not an international lawyer, but it seems to be very clear to me that there is no international consensus that the doctrine of “humanitarian intervention” could provide an exemption to Art. 2 (4) of the UN Charter. Indeed, the general prohibition of the threat and use of force remains an important achievement in international law. It cannot be incumbent on UN member states to create an exemption from this fundamental norm by themselves. The bar to any use of force outside the UN Charter is therefore very high, as it should be. Without the resort to any court of law that could interpret unilateral justifications for the use of force, the concept of “humanitarian intervention” opens the door to abuse. Furthermore, the concept is tainted with a very problematic history, including the French operation Turquoise during the genocide in Rwanda in 1994. Framed as humanitarian intervention, it ended up helping perpetrators to escape into neighbouring Zaire.
  2. If “humanitarian intervention” does not provide the legal justification for military action without UN Security Council mandate or in self-defence, what can? In any given situation, potential interveners should contemplate whether military force is really the last resort, urgently needed, and an effective and proportional instrument. If they conclude that military action fulfils these criteria, they should at least seek a wider international agreement in the UN General Assembly. Any resolution adopted by the General Assembly under such circumstances would not have the force of law, in my understanding. There are no generalized exemptions from the prohibition on the use of force outside the UN Charter – they would undermine the whole system. A political statement in the form of a resolution of the General Assembly would, however, provide a strong signal of legitimacy.[1] It cannot undo the fundamental power inequalities inherent in the international order, which are manifested by the authority of the UN Security Council and the power of its permanent members.

The need for reform

  1. The concept of the responsibility to protect was developed to spur international action on atrocity crimes. On that score, its success is very limited. It has contributed to the specification of conceptual debates within the United Nations, and provided a helpful tool for policy entrepreneurs, mainly in domestic settings. On a global level, its utility has run its course. In UN debates and diplomacy, R2P should be retired and replaced by a more operational focus on atrocity prevention. Indeed, recent reports by the UN Special Advisor on the Prevention of Genocide already point in that direction.
  2. Instead of focusing on issues of global order and intervention, as R2P inevitably does, atrocity prevention focuses on the role of victims, in particular civilians. Indeed, actors such as the UK that say they want to promote the global rule of law and prevent atrocities should embrace this civilian-centred perspective. They should ask themselves in diplomatic, development, humanitarian, and military engagements in political crises how their actions are going to affect the situation of civilian populations. Are there ways to empower the capacity of civilians to protect themselves by unarmed means? In contrast to R2P, atrocity prevention cannot be mistaken as legalistic justification for military interventions.
  3. In cases where governments are directly responsible for atrocities, it is important to find ways to coerce them to stop these violations of fundamental human rights, including by targeted financial and judicial means. The UK can make use of the notion of “universal jurisdiction”, for example, to prepare cases against foreign individuals responsible for war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. With the central position of the UK in the global financial system, it could also engage more forcefully in combating money laundering by elites that are responsible for such crimes.
  4. Building on the Brazilian proposal of a “responsibility while protecting” in 2011, UN Security Council members, including the UK, should consider more rigorous monitoring arrangements for UN-mandated operations. These could include requirements for regular reporting by lead nations of such mandated operations to the Council via the Secretary-General. The Security Council could also create independent monitoring teams that report on the implementation of mandates by third-party forces, similar to panels of experts in the context of UN sanctions regimes. Such mechanisms would facilitate a higher quality of information and decision-making in the Security Council (Benner et al. 2015: 25-26).
  5. In the specific case of chemical weapons use in Syria, it is questionable how one-off airstrikes such as those conducted by the US in April 2017 and by the US, France, and the UK in April 2018, would credibly deter the Syrian government. The UK government should focus on re-establishing an investigative mechanism that investigates culpability for chemical weapons incidents. If the Security Council remains blocked on this question, then the General Assembly should provide a new mandate for this mechanism, whose original mandate ran out in November 2017. Furthermore, the UK should hand over any evidence that is has collected through its own sources on chemical weapons use in Syria to the International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism on international crimes committed in the Syrian Arab Republic (IIIM). The UK should help the European Union to prepare targeted sanctions on individuals and companies involved in the chemical weapons programme in Syria, whether they are from Syria or not. Lastly, the UK should contribute to fund humanitarian appeals on Syria and accept a much larger share as part of the resettlement programme that the UN High Commissioner for Refugees operates.
  6. Finally, the UK government should invest in consistent political engagement through diplomatic tools, including in its own diplomatic capacities and in multilateral capacities. As the United States is withdrawing diplomatic capacities on a large scale, Europeans need to step up to at least provide detailed analysis, monitoring and engagement in crisis areas around the world. The UK should include explicit assessments of atrocity risks, including identity-based violence, in its country strategies. It should exchange these risk analyses on a regular basis with like-minded states and create joint response strategies.



Benner, Thorsten, Sarah Brockmeier, Erna Burai, C.S.R. Murthy, Christopher Daase, Madhan Mohan Jaganathan, Julian Junk, Xymena Kurowska, Gerrit Kurtz, Liu Tiewa, Wolfgang Reinicke, Philipp Rotmann, Ricardo Soares de Oliveira, Matias Spektor, Oliver Stuenkel, Marcos Tourinho, Harry Verhoeven and Zhang Haibin (2015): Effective and Responsible Protection from Atrocity Crimes: Toward Global Action. Policy Paper. Berlin. Global Public Policy Institute.

Brockmeier, Sarah, Oliver Stuenkel and Marcos Tourinho (2016): The impact of the Libya intervention debates on norms of protection. Global Society 30:1, 113-133.

Evans, Gareth (2008): The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and For All. Washington, D.C.: Brookings

International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (2001): The Responsibilty to Protect. Ottawa. International Development Research Centre.

Jo, Hyeran and Beth A. Simmons (2016): Can the International Criminal Court Deter Atrocity? International Organization 70:3, 443-475.

Kurtz, Gerrit and Philipp Rotmann (2016): The Evolution of Norms of Protection: Major Powers Debate the Responsibility to Protect. Global Society 30:1, 3-20.

Murthy, C. S. R. and Gerrit Kurtz (2016): International Responsibility as Solidarity: The Impact of the World Summit Negotiations on the R2P Trajectory. Global Society 30:1, 38-53.

Obama, Barack, David Cameron and Nicolas Sarkozy (2011): Libya’s Pathway to Peace. The International Herald Tribune.15.04., 07.12.2012

The independent international commission on Kosovo (2000): The Kosovo report. Conflict. International response. Lessons learned. Oxford/ New York: Oxford University Press

UN General Assembly (2005): Resolution 60/1. 2005 World Summit Outcome. New York:  A/RES/60/1. 24 October

UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (2017): Darker and more dangerous: High Commissioner updates the Human Rights Council on human rights issues in 40 countries. Human Rights Council 36th session, Opening Statement.Geneva. 11 September., 6 May 2018

UN Secretary-General (2009): Implementing the responsibility to protect – Report of the Secretary-General.  UN Doc. A/63/677. 12 January

UN Security Council (2011): Resolution 1973 (2011). New York:  S/RES/1973 (2011). 17 March

Yacoubian, Mona (2017): Critical Junctures in United States Policy toward Syria. An Assessment of the Counterfactuals. Series of Occastional Papers. Washington, DC. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. August.


[1] As such, it would contribute to an assessment that the Independent International Commission on Kosovo (2000: 186) made with regard to the NATO-led intervention in 1999 when the commission qualified it as “illegal, yet legitimate”.

South Sudan’s Peace Process Needs New Thinking

This piece originally appeared on the Global Observatory that is run by the International Peace Institute.


Today marks the end of the fourth year of civil war in the youngest state on earth, South Sudan. Over the years, attempts to build a lasting peace agreement have faltered. The Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan (ARCSS)—facilitated by the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD)—was signed by President Salva Kiir Mayardit and former Vice President Riek Machar Teny in August 2015, but by July 2016 the deal broke apart after several days of heavy fighting between Kiir’s and Machar’s troops in Juba. Current attempts to revitalize the ARCSS, although welcome, face an array of obstacles. To overcome these and to avoid repeating the same mistakes that led to the demise of the ARCSS, new thinking and approaches are needed.

Obstacles to a Lasting Peace Agreement

The model of peacemaking thus far has been characterized as “big tent”: after several rounds of fighting lead to a stalemate, the government provides rebel leaders with an opportunity to control and disperse resources, and to integrate their militia into the national army. This policy formed the basis of the ARCSS. In June 2017, the IGAD council of ministers called for a “high-level revitalization forum” of the ARCSS. The initiative has support within the government and from all major opposition groups who have expressed their readiness to participate in the negotiations. However, IGAD diplomats face a delicate balancing act. Some provisions of the peace agreement, including the security arrangements, are clearly obsolete and need to be reviewed. At the same time, opening the whole agreement for renegotiation risks drawing out the process and potentially losing some of the commitments to constitutional reform, economic management, and transitional justice that are included.

More importantly, it is fundamentally unclear how “revitalization” will look. Since the July 2016 crisis, political and military realities have changed considerably. After Riek Machar fled the country, President Kiir appointed the opposition politician Taban Deng Gai to replace him. Yet the government’s expectation that he would be able to bring along opposition fighters with him has not been met. Most of Riek Machar’s troops remain loyal to him. His involvement in the process remains a major stumbling block for the negotiations. No one in the diplomatic community in Juba that I spoke to during a recent research trip expects Machar to return to Juba, after SPLA units tried to kill him twice, in 2013 and 2016. Accommodating Machar in the government thus seems impossible, though marginalizing him has also not worked.

The underlying problem remains the logic of dividing the spoils. Positions of authority in South Sudan have served the self-enrichment of office-holders and the accumulation of political budgets. As a result of the insecurity in the country and the macroeconomic crisis, the resources that could be allocated are becoming smaller. Moreover, the lack of accountability of officials and politicians is a core challenge that contributed to the outbreak of the civil war in the first place. If there is no overarching political vision for South Sudan, another purely transactional power-sharing deal will inevitably result in dissent and confrontation just as in 2016.

No Easy Solutions

The last few years have made clear that there are no quick fixes in South Sudan. No single process will be able to bring a comprehensive peace to the country in the foreseeable future. For the time being, a number of measures can be taken that may mitigate and contain the scale and brutality of the violence, and even create space for a long-term peace agreement.

The first is for IGAD mediators and international interlocutors to make clear that perpetrators will face justice. Looting, sexual violence, and mass atrocities need to have consequences. Regional support for asset freezes and anti-money laundering measures, for example, is growing. In September, the African Union Peace and Security Council warned that the revitalization process represented “a last chance for the Parties” and threatened unspecified sanctions against spoilers. After the United States strengthened its unilateral sanctions regime, the Kenyan Central Bank instructed its banks to implement asset freezes that the UN Security Council had passed in 2015.

Second, international actors, such as the Troika—the three-nation group supporting negotiations consisting of Norway, the UK, and the US—but also Germany and the EU, could lobby other countries for an informal arms embargo on South Sudan. US pressure has already stopped Sudanese arms deliveries for Machar’s troops. Engaging with Ukraine, Uganda, and Egypt, which the UN Panel of Experts sees as the government’s arms dealers, would be crucial as well. A commitment to a ceasefire at the beginning of the revitalization forum could provide the diplomatic backing for those states to reconsider their covert arms shipments.

Third, empowering civil society and other constructive forces will be crucial. The churches play a very important role in peacemaking and reconciliation as they are the only institutions with a reach in all corners of the country. They also have the patience and stamina to stay engaged when national and international actors have long left. Their biggest advantage is also a challenge though. Part and parcel of South Sudanese society, they are not immune to the polarization that has divided the country. Work on intercommunal conflicts by the churches, the UN mission, and non-governmental organizations needs donor support, including for targeted early recovery measures.

A Need for International Introspection

Finally, Western countries, and in particular the Troika, will contribute more positively to negotiations if they are aware of their own impact on the conflict and the peace process. For example, Troika acceptance of the replacement of Riek Machar with Taban Deng Gai lent legitimacy to the process. On the other hand, the rushed and failed effort of the US to expand the UN sanctions regime and create an arms embargo “gave Juba a degree of increased confidence,” in one Western diplomat’s perception. The government then continued its operations in Equatoria that displaced hundreds of thousands of civilians, and obstructed humanitarian access. Another example is the disappointment of South Sudanese civil society organizations when German foreign minister Sigmar Gabriel stood them up during a visit in August 2017.

Ultimately, there is no silver bullet to ending the civil war in South Sudan. At the very least, international actors should ensure that their actions and omissions do not prolong the suffering, however unintentionally. Overcoming the tendency to broker conventional transactional power-sharing agreements would be an important start.

Gerrit Kurtz is a PhD candidate at King’s College London and a non-resident fellow with the Global Public Policy Institute in Berlin. His research focuses on conflict prevention diplomacy in South Sudan and Sri Lanka.


Making the United Nations System More Effective on Conflict Prevention

UN Secretary-General António Guterres’ prevention agenda builds upon the achievements of the ›Human Rights up Front‹ initiative launched by his predecessor. The initiative has created a more integrated early-warning system, strengthened the preventive work of UN Country Teams, and initiated a cultural change within the UN system. However, creating confidence between the different pillars of the UN system remains a challenge. Step by step, the new early-warning mechanisms at headquarter and country level will contribute to a more holistic understanding of the risks of grave human rights abuses, allowing a more coherent UN response.

Secretary General Antonio Guterres meeting with Greek Community leader H. E. Nicos Anastasiades and Turkish Community leader H.E. Mustafa Akinci, (c) UN Photo/Eskinder Debebe.

This post appeared on GPPi’s website.

UN Secretary-General António Guterres has identified one overarching priority for his work: the prevention of human suffering. Specifically, Guterres envisions that the concept of prevention, and the mechanisms it entails, will be able to cut across and strengthen the UN’s three pillars: peace and security, human rights, and sustainable development. In more concrete terms, Guterres builds on the Human Rights up Front (HRuF) initiative, a key reform project introduced by his predecessor, Ban Ki-moon, to strengthen the UN’s preventive capabilities.

The HRuF initiative targets the work of UN staff as well as cooperation among UN agencies. It emerged as a reaction to the perceived failure of the UN system as a whole during the last months of the war in Sri Lanka. Following this failure, the UN created new coordination mechanisms in the UN Secretariat; it sought to re-emphasize the human rights work of UN development agencies on the ground, and it bolstered existing instruments in order to support individual UN Country Teams with expert staff.

In his first appearance as secretary-general at the UN Security Council, Guterres said that neither war nor peace were inevitable. Peace, he insisted, is “the result of difficult decisions, hard work, and compromise”; to this end, prevention is “not merely a priority, but the priority” in order to “save lives, reduce suffering, and give hope to millions.” The HRuF initiative provides a cornerstone of this vision.

The Origins of Human Rights up Front

In November 2012, a UN internal review panel identified a “systemic failure” in the work of both the UN Country Team and the UN Secretariat during the last months of the Sri Lankan Civil War in 2008 and 2009. The UN Country Team consists of all the agencies, funds, and programs working in a respective country, for example the UN Development Programme (UNDP), the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), and the World Bank. These organizations seek to fulfill their respective mandate as part of a comprehensive development framework that the UN has agreed on with the host country. A Resident Coordinator (RC) coordinates the overall work of these agencies; usually, the RC is also the head of the local UNDP office. In humanitarian emergencies, he or she takes on the additional function of Humanitarian Coordinator (HC) to manage the members of the Humanitarian Country Team.

Each of these organizations employs program- and analysis-staff related to their respective line of work, but the resources of the RC’s office for political analysis and diplomacy are typically very limited. While the UN Department of Political Affairs (DPA) in New York has analysts dealing with conflicts around the world, DPA is typically reluctant to share its information, and in the past, communication between DPA and UN Country Teams has been irregular. This fragmented structure has had difficulty producing coherent and effective human rights analysis for the UN Country Team on the ground.

This became especially clear in the case of Sri Lanka, where criticism of UN behavior during the last phase of the civil war was less directed towards individual people or organizations, but rather towards the UN’s institutional set-up as a whole. Each UN entity involved examined the situation primarily from its own perspective; there was no joint analysis of the risks and threats to civilian populations coming from the perspective of the entire UN system. While DPA performed an “excellent analysis of the risks,” the analysis and conclusions were seen as exclusively the conclusions of DPA. “No one else felt they should act on them,” a UN official briefed on the matter said in an interview. UN pressure to act on the DPA analysis would have been key, argued another UN official, to commit the parties in the conflict to abide by international humanitarian law.

Yet the conditions on the ground and within the institution made this kind of approach impossible. Coordination between UN agencies in New York and Geneva was lacking. There were too few people in the country versed in dealing with violations of human rights and international humanitarian law. The Sri Lankan government had repeatedly withheld work permits for UN staff members.

In January 2009, several members of the UN Country Team in Sri Lanka began counting civilian casualties on their own initiative, without an explicit institutional mandate. The Resident Coordinator presented the data to diplomatic missions in March 2009; but when the High Commissioner for Human Rights and diplomatic missions published them shortly thereafter, the RC played down their importance to the government. As a result,  the UN as a whole sent mixed messages to the government, who was responsible for the majority of civilian casualties, according to the UN Country Team’s own information at the time.

At the same time, in New York, Emergency Relief Coordinator John Holmes concentrated on maintaining humanitarian access to the conflict zone. He was the only one allowed to brief the members of the Security Council in informal sessions about the situation on the ground. Focusing on humanitarian access was part of his job description, yet this also meant that the Security Council members lacked an explicit human rights perspective from the Secretariat.

When the Executive Office of the Secretary-General studied the internal review panel’s report, it recognized that “a systemic failure needs a systemic solution,” explained Andrew Gilmour, who was overseeing the work in the office at the time, in an interview. The Sri Lankan crisis and the resultant analysis were thus the starting point for the Human Rights up Front initiative. In September 2013, Ban Ki-moon approved a detailed action plan, and in December of the same year, Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson briefed the General Assembly on the initiative.

A Comprehensive Reform Package

The HRuF initiative has three overarching objectives: (1) enacting a cultural change in the UN system so that all UN staff see human rights as part of their work, (2) establishing better early warning and coordination mechanisms both in conflict countries as well as in New York, and (3) promoting more open engagement with UN member states on human rights.

The Human Rights up Front initiative is not simply concerned with individual action points. Rather, UN staff members are being encouraged to see themselves as part of a whole, instead of thinking only in terms of the narrow competences of their respective department, fund, programme, or agency. They should feel empowered to act on the basis of the normative principles of the United Nations – in particular on the pivotal issue of human rights. Summarizing the core message, former Assistant Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs Kyung-wha Kang noted that the UN’s work is “about the human beings,” whose challenges “are not subdivided into different mandates as the UN system is.”

The cultural change on systemic human rights engagement should come about through three main forms of action: public commitments by the UN leadership, training for all UN staff members, and a revised selection and appraisal system for Resident Coordinators. Thirteen thousand UN staff members have already undergone new human rights training through an online course. In addition, the Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights (OHCHR) now has an active role in the selection and regular appraisal of RCs. Furthermore, the UN Development Group has updated the generic job description for Resident Coordinators to include an emphasis on human rights and created new guidance on human rights work for RCs and UN Country Teams.

At the same time, everyone involved is aware that an organization of the size and complexity of the United Nations cannot change its culture overnight. Reforms need time to work in practice, and UN leadership needs to show that it stands behind the engagement of its staff members in crisis situations. In addition, the UN needs to make clear that leadership failure has consequences. Too often, senior UN officials are promoted rather than dismissed. Ban Ki-moon’s decision to ask the head of the UN mission in Central African Republic, Babacar Gaye, for his resignation when reports about sexual abuse and exploitations by French and UN peacekeeping troops in the country emerged in 2015 is a significant step in the right direction.

Early Warning and Coordination Mechanisms

Skeptical member states have typically been a major obstacle to the implementation of effective early warning mechanisms in the UN system. Many do not want to be faced with the prospect of risk ratings or of landing on the agenda of the UN Security Council, which might impose coercive measures in line with chapter seven of the UN Charter. Similarly, UN development agencies may be cautious or hesitant when it comes to monitoring the situation of human rights and other risk factors on the ground, as they work closely with host governments and seek to avoid drawing their ire.

The HRuF response to this challenge is to take a universal approach. The early warning mechanisms pertain to all member states, in particular those that are not on the agenda of the UN Security Council. For this purpose, the UN introduced regional quarterly review mechanisms, which are jointly chaired by DPA and UNDP and bring together all relevant UN agencies in New York to discuss pertinent issues and the response of the UN system as a whole. These reviews, which are divided into six different regional formats, consider information from all relevant entities in the UN system and also consult with the respective Resident Coordinators. If the participants of these mechanisms think it necessary, they can bring challenges up to the political leadership level and trigger a decision that is formally carried by the whole UN system.

According to participants in these reviews, their value goes far beyond tangible results. The open discussion format at the meetings allows the creation of a comprehensive picture of a given situation, as insights are drawn from the network of UN entities working in sustainable development, humanitarian aid, human rights, and political analysis. UNDP staff members, for example, reported that they would now consider human rights topics more seriously as a result of these reviews; legislation in certain countries that aims to restrict civil society organizations was mentioned as one particular point of future attention. One interviewee remarked that they were now looking into the levers available to UNDP to urge governments to withdraw such legislation.

Similar coordination mechanisms on the country level took longer to be set up, but are currently in their pilot phase. In one country, where the UN Country Team started these preventive coordination meetings in May 2016, the joint brainstorming in these sessions led to heightened confidence among the representatives of UN agencies involved, one UN official noted. Because of the directness and intimacy of these meetings, participants felt comfortable sharing sensitive observations that they otherwise would not include in formal reports. These positive responses underscore the value of the formats introduced by the HRuF initiative.

Engagement with UN Member States

The early warning mechanisms that the United Nations has established as part of HRuF are restricted to the UN system; member states and civil society organizations do not take part in the discussions. To the degree that these coordination mechanisms lead to a more coherent UN position vis-à-vis host governments, they can still increase the effectiveness of the UN conflict prevention efforts as a whole. UN staff members said, for example, that the UN acted more coherently in the run-up to the 2015 Nigerian presidential election than on previous occasions. This included appointing a designated senior UN official as point person on Nigeria in the Secretariat. The specific impact of the greater UN coherence on the relatively peaceful outcome of the election and change in government remains to be researched.

The increase in informal DPA briefings for the Security Council also demonstrates the new dynamics that the HRuF initiative has brought to how the UN Secretariat deals with member states. There were twice as many such briefings in 2015 compared to the year before. DPA uses the agenda item “any other business” for this purpose, to present member states with background information on countries that may not be on the council’s existing agenda.

Meanwhile, a new format, in which the Secretariat informally briefs the members of the Security Council about the political and human rights dimension of a particular situation, has emerged. These situational awareness briefings were introduced during the monthly presidency of New Zealand in September 2016 and have taken place on a monthly basis since then. The early warning function of these briefings is limited, however, since, at least until January 2017, these briefings only dealt with countries that were already on the council’s agenda.

Problems and Challenges

In light of the high ambition of the initiative, it is not surprising that the cultural change has not taken hold completely. There are structural constraints inherent in UN institutions. The entities in the UN system all take very different approaches to addressing human rights violations. Consider the question of whether, and under which conditions, public advocacy is more effective than quiet diplomacy. The Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights, which has a mandate to monitor and report all human rights violations, will take a different approach to this question than, for example, the World Food Programme, which depends on humanitarian access. The situation is similar regarding the role of the UN towards host governments. Development agencies like UNDP depend on cooperation, even with authoritarian governments, whose conduct towards civil society OHCHR might publicly criticize. This poses an enduring structural challenge that the UN will have to address over time.

In addition, multiple scandals have plagued the UN even after the introduction of the HRuF initiative, which underline the enduring challenges that the initiative faces. One example is the manner in which different agencies handled information about sexual exploitation and abuse by French soldiers that were part of the UN mandated operation “Sengaris” in the Central African Republic. Instead of taking the information seriously, the UN suspended Anders Kompass, the OHCHR staff member who had passed on evidence to French authorities, after UN channels had failed to respond to his warnings. In language reminiscent of the internal review panel on Sri Lanka, another independent inquiry published in December 2015 spoke of “gross institutional failure” in this case.

Moreover, the decisions of coordination mechanisms are not always easily translated into actionable results. For example, demand for additional peace and development advisors, which UNDP and DPA provide to UN Country Teams upon their request, has grown faster than the quantity of available funds. Currently, there are 39 such advisors deployed worldwide. According to UN officials, an additional $4 million will be required from 2018 in order to cover current demand for eleven more advisors. Such constraints thus remain a significant issue limiting the potential success of the HRuF initiative.

On a similar note, the deployment of UN human rights advisors has proven to be challenging. These are tasked with supporting Resident Coordinators and UN Country Teams with a human rights-based approach to development, and in advising them and the host government on the human rights treaty system. Unfortunately, their deployment can take up to 24 months. According to one evaluation, by the time the advisors are ready, the RC that originally requested the additional personnel may have already left the host country, and his or her successor might not see the same demand for a human rights advisor. If UN Country Teams are supposed to put human rights up front, the deployment of human rights advisors needs to be sped up and their management improved.

New Enthusiasm for Prevention

Since taking office, Secretary-General Guterres has started to translate his rhetorical commitment to prevention into a number of specific actions. He restructured the early warning and coordination mechanisms in the UN Secretariat. As a result, the prevention mechanisms have become more integrated since March 2017. Regional reviews now take place on a monthly basis; in addition, the new Deputies Committee that brings together the heads of relevant agencies at the level of assistant secretary-general now also meets on a monthly basis, and has a new standing item on prevention. Decisions can be forwarded to the Deputies Committee and, if necessary, to the Executive Committee, where Guterres and his most senior advisors meet weekly.

Secretary-General Guterres has also announced that he wants to increase the mediation and conflict resolution capacity of the UN. He has commissioned a number of reviews of the peace and security architecture, including on prevention. According to some observers, this reform process might lead to a greater focus on preventive diplomacy, away from expensive and complex peace operations.

Conclusion and the Role of Germany

Have any of these mechanisms and actions contributed to a reduction in human rights violations? In light of the complex nature of international relations, the long causal chains involved, and the high number of actors at play, it is not possible to answer this question unequivocally. International organizations always have a limited influence on intra-state conflicts, and the UN can only mitigate, rather than eliminate, regional rivalries and geopolitical interests. This uncertainty lies in the nature of prevention. A lot depends on a comprehensive and flexible analysis of the situation, the qualifications and courage of leaders on the ground, and the readiness of conflicting parties to resolve their dispute peacefully. At the same time, the UN has definitely improved its capacity to respond to grave human rights abuses, as exemplified by the new mechanisms of the Human Rights up Front initiative.

Member states such as Germany that want to strengthen the role of the UN in the area of prevention need to do their best to ensure that the HRuF initiative and Guterres’s prevention agenda become a success. For that purpose, they can further contribute to the funding of peace and development advisors (Germany is already a donor to the program), promote human rights and prevention in executive boards of UN development agencies, funds and programs, and coordinate closely with Resident Coordinators on the ground on human rights and other political issues.

Germany, which is currently campaigning for a non-permanent seat on the UN Security Council in the 2019–2020 period, should take a leading role in this regard. In the Security Council, it should promote more visiting missions in a preventive function, similar to the mission to the Lake Chad region organized by the United Kingdom in March 2017. It should push the United Nations to hold its senior leaders on the ground to account when they fail to adopt a preventive posture and to empower those UN leaders and staff members that show courage. In doing so, the German government could start to operationalize the high ambitions it set for itself in its recently adopted white paper on crisis prevention, conflict management, and peace promotion.


This is an edited and slightly revised translation of a German article that first appeared in the journal Vereinte Nationen.

Sri Lanka: Menschenrechtspolitik ist kein Wettbewerbsnachteil

Eine konsequente Menschenrechtspolitik hat den demokratischen Wandel in Sri Lanka beschleunigt. Die Verschuldung gegenüber China steht einer Aufarbeitung des Krieges nicht im Wege. Eine Replik.

Chinesische Baustelle am Galle Face Green im Zentrum Colombos.

In seinem Beitrag in der FAZ vom 19. Dezember 2016 (“Gefangen in Chinas Schuldenfalle“) beschreibt Christoph Hein, wie die militärische Unterstützung Chinas während der letzten Phase des sri lankischen Bürgerkriegs das Tor für chinesisch finanzierte Großprojekte eröffnete. „Der Westen pochte auf die Menschenrechte und ließ die strategisch wichtige Insel links liegen“, schreibt Hein. Das ist eine einseitige Darstellung.

Wahr ist nämlich auch, dass westliche Staaten schon lange vor China den sri lankischen Kurs der militärischen Bekämpfung der Rebellenorganisation der Tamil Tigers unterstützten. Das US State Department stufte die Organisation bereits 1997 als ausländische terroristische Organisation ein. Selbst als sich die sri lankische Regierung mit den Tamil Tigers in Friedensverhandlungen befand, durften Rebellenvertreter nicht zu einer Geberkonferenz in Washington D. C. im April 2003 fahren. Die Rebellenorganisation nutzte diese Absage als Vorwand, um ihre Teilnahme an den Friedensverhandlungen auszusetzen.

Nachrichtendienstliche Erkenntnisse der USA und Indiens  halfen der sri lankischen Marine, die „schwimmenden Warenhäuser“ der Tamil Tigers im indischen Ozean zu identifizieren und zu zerstören. Bis 2008 lieferten Großbritannien, Tschechien und andere europäische Staaten Sri Lanka Militärfahrzeuge, Kleinwaffen und Granaten.

Spät, zu spät begannen die USA, Großbritannien und Indien, sich bei der sri lankischen Regierung für „humanitäre Feuerpausen“ einzusetzen. Sie standen unter Druck der tamilischen Diaspora bzw. der Regionalregierung in Tamil Nadu. Doch kurz vor dem Ziel ließ sich Präsident Mahinda Rajapaksa nicht aufhalten. Entsprechend perplex reagierte er auf die Forderungen dieser Länder, Vorwürfe massiver Menschenrechtsverletzungen nach dem Krieg aufzuarbeiten. Laut einem bei Wikileaks veröffentlichten US-Drahtbericht vom 18. September 2009 beschrieb Rajapaksa gegenüber der US-Botschafterin, wie der frühere US-Präsident George W. Bush ihn „persönlich ermutigt habe, die Niederschlagung der LTTE (Tamil Tigers) zu verfolgen“. Rufe nach Aufarbeitung fehlte es schlicht an Glaubwürdigkeit.

Chinas Bereitschaft, Sri Lanka mit Infrastrukturprojekten unter die Arme zu greifen, kam gerade recht für Präsident Rajapaksa. Seine Strategie nach dem Krieg sah einen vor allem durch materielle Entwicklung erkauften Frieden vor. Die Regierung investierte zusammen mit internationalen Partnern wie Indien und Japan in Straßen, Eisenbahnverbindungen, Häuser und Elektrizitätsversorgung in den ehemaligen Rebellengebieten im Norden und Osten der Insel.

Im Gegenzug wollte Rajapaksa großangelegte Projekte in den Süden, seine politische Heimat, bringen. Warum sollte China sonst einen ungenutzten Flughafen und einen weitgehend überflüssigen Tiefseehafen in Hambantota finanzieren? Dies waren zuvorderst sri lankische Prioritäten. Chinas Unterstützung für den Hafen kam erst ins Spiel, nachdem Indien abgesagt hatte. Sri Lanka ist kein führerloses Schiff, das hilflos den geostrategischen Interessen von Großmächten ausgesetzt ist.

Weiterhin beschreibt Hein die Entwicklung Sri Lankas nach dem Ende des Bürgerkriegs im Mai 2009 als „Fallbeispiel für das Vordringen Chinas“,  dem weder die neue Regierung noch die westlichen Industriestaaten etwas entgegenzusetzen hätten.

Keine Frage, die hohe Verschuldung des sri lankischen Staates, insbesondere bei China, stellt eine große Belastung für den Haushalt dar. Die Verantwortung dafür liegt bei der Vorgängerregierung unter Präsident Rajapaksa. Wegen vorher festgesetzten Vertragsstrafen bei Bauunterbrechung von „Knebelverträgen“ und „Erpressung“ zu sprechen, wie Hein es tut, ist jedoch reichlich hochgegriffen. So manche deutsche Landesregierung kann ein Lied davon singen, dass unliebsame Projekte der Vorgängerregierung aus rechtlichen Gründen und entgegen von Wahlkampfversprechen nicht mehr zu verhindern sind. In einem Rechtsstaat sind Verträge nun einmal einzuhalten.

Rein finanziell können westliche Industriestaaten nicht die gleichen Summen wie China für ein Land, das die Weltbank nicht mehr zu den ärmsten Ländern der Welt zählt, aufbringen. Geld übersetzt sich aber nicht eins zu eins in politischen Einfluss.

Die Situation in Sri Lanka stellt keinesfalls einen geopolitischen Sieg Chinas dar, insoweit solche Kategorien überhaupt einen Erklärungswert besitzen. Weltpolitik ist schließlich kein Nullsummenspiel. Eine Mehrheit der sri lankischen Wahlbevölkerung hat am 8. Januar 2015 eine chinafreundliche Regierung abgewählt. Mahinda Rajapaksa stand für einen zunehmend autokratischen Führungsstil, die Einschränkung des Rechtsstaats, Übergriffe auf religiöse Minderheiten und grassierende Korruption.

Von den USA und Großbritannien organisierte Mehrheiten im UN-Menschenrechtsrat setzten die Regierung seit 2012 auch außenpolitisch unter Druck. Laut Diplomatenkreisen fürchteten sich singhalesische Geschäftsleute bereits vor möglichen US-Sanktionen, unbenommen davon, wie begründet diese Sorgen waren. Eine Isolation von westlichen Staaten, auf welche Sri Lanka unter Präsident Rajapaksa zusteuerte, wollten diese Kreise verhindern.

Nach knapp zwei Jahren im Amt hat die neue Regierung einer großen Koalition unter Präsident Maithripala Sirisena und Premierminister Ranil Wickramasinghe wichtige Reformvorhaben angestoßen.  Am 28. April 2015 verabschiedete das Parlament den 19. Verfassungszusatz, welcher die Kompetenzen und Amtszeit des Präsidenten begrenzte. Im September 2015 bekannte sich die Regierung im UN-Menschenrechtsrat zu einem umfassenden Programm zur Aufarbeitung des Bürgerkriegs.  Seit dem 5. April 2016 berät das Parlament als verfassungsgebende Versammlung. Das Ziel: eine neue Verfassung, welche Dezentralisierung stärkt und damit zur politischen Lösung des Konfliktes beiträgt. Und im Juli 2016 gab der Internationale Währungsfonds ein Paket im Wert von 1,5 Milliarden Dollar bekannt, das an kontinuierliche Wirtschaftsreformen gekoppelt ist.

China steht diesen Vorhaben nicht im Weg. Vielmehr hat die offensive Unterstützung für die Rajapaksa-Regierung ihr Einfluss gekostet, wie der von Hein erwähnte öffentliche Streit zwischen dem Finanzminister und dem chinesischen Botschafter in Colombo unterstreicht. Diejenigen Staaten, die seit Kriegsende beharrlich auf eine aufgeklärte Menschenrechtspolitik und die Aufarbeitung mutmaßlicher Kriegsverbrechen gesetzt haben, verfügen jetzt über sehr gute Beziehungen zur Regierung.

Die sri lankische Regierung sollte noch mehr tun, um die Aufarbeitung des Krieges voran zu treiben. Insbesondere sollte sie gegenüber der singhalesischen Bevölkerungsmehrheit deutlicher die Notwendigkeit der Aufarbeitung erklären. Um ihren fiskalischen Spielraum zu vergrößern, könnte sie die Grundsteuer anheben anstatt wie bisher die Mehrwertsteuer zu erhöhen. Und sie könnte den Verteidigungshaushalt senken und das Militär verkleinern.

Westliche Industriestaaten wie Deutschland sollten weiterhin denjenigen Kräften innerhalb der Regierung den Rücken stärken, die sich für Aufarbeitung von Unrecht und Reformen einsetzen. Sie sollten sicherstellen, dass die Vereinten Nationen auch nach der nächsten Sitzung des Menschenrechtsrates im März 2017 eine Rolle spielen, die Umsetzung von Sri Lankas eigenen Verpflichtungen zu überprüfen und mit Expertenwissen zu unterstützen. Wenn das geschieht, kann Sri Lanka zu einem Fallbeispiel erfolgreicher Menschenrechtspolitik und nachhaltiger Friedensarbeit werden.

Mastering pretence – A visit to Northern Cyprus

This photo essay was published on November 12, 2016 on Strife

It’s half past five in the morning, but the fast food restaurant at the airport is already open. This is not your typical American fast food chain however. It’s called “Burger City” and can be found all over the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. To the casual observer, the burgers look strangely familiar. One of our guides during this visit to Northern Cyprus explains why– “’Burger City’ is ‘Burger King’ pretending not to be ‘Burger King.’ It cannot open a restaurant under its own brand in the North because of consumer protests in the South,“ he says. Our guide’s explanation reveals an important feature of Northern Cyprus—the   battle of perceptions. Mastering the art of pretence is a national sport in Northern Cyprus.

Burger City outlet in Northern Nikosia. © Gerrit Kurtz.

Trying to be a state

Deception is deeply rooted in Northern Cyprus. The statelet in the Eastern Mediterranean is only recognized by Turkey, which has stationed 42,500 troops in the territory. Ever since the abrogation of the power-sharing arrangement by the Greek Orthodox majority in 1963 and the Turkish military intervention in 1974, Cyprus has been divided.

Peace negotiations have been hampered by the unequal status of the of the Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The Republic of Cyprus enjoys international legitimacy and full EU membership. The unilateral declaration of a Turkish Cypriot state in Northern Cyprus was an attempt to level the diplomatic playing field. Turkish Cypriots seek to gain politically equal status, even though they only make up about a quarter of the South’s population (313,000 to 1.1 million today).

Cargo ships at the ancient port of Famagusta only have one (legal) destination: Turkey. © Gerrit Kurtz.

Caught in limbo

Its unrecognised status has skewed the economy of Turkish Cyprus. Green-yellow mandarins and oranges are examples of the delicious produce grown here. But cargo ships in the ancient port of Famagusta cannot deliver these goods anywhere else except through Turkey because of the international embargo imposed on all Northern Cypriot ports and airports following its unilateral declaration of independence in 1983. Heavy regulations also stifle other means  of exporting goods that  would otherwise be possible. Meanwhile, uncertainty about property rights of land occupied after the 1974 Turkish intervention deter large foreign investors and hamper local production.

Since exporting agricultural and manufactured goods remains difficult, the economy depends more on its service sector. Driving along the central coast to the city of Girne/Kyrenia (many of the cities were given Turkish names after the Greeks fled), bright neon signs announce one of the mainstays of the North’s shadowy service economy–casinos. Eighteen casinos bring in money from the Turkish mainland, from where the majority of their customers hail.

Other economic activities are less problematic. The Turkish Cypriots have discovered a perhaps unlikely source of profits: higher education. Twelve universities currently attract around 85,000 students, with only about twenty percent from the island itself. The universities are connected to the Turkish higher education system, and are cheaper and easier to get into compared with European ones. Quality inevitably varies, but as The New York Times reported in 2014, for some foreign students, a degree from a Turkish Cypriot university can serve as a springboard for another degree from a western university. With one billion U.S. Dollars, the university sector as a whole contributes a thirdof Northern Cyprus’ GDP.

A church? A mosque! The Lusignan kings used to be crowned in the majestic St Nicholas church in Famagusta. The Ottomans turned it into a mosque in the 16th century. Not it is known as Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque. © Gerrit Kurtz.
A church? A mosque! The Lusignan kings used to be crowned in the majestic St Nicholas church in Famagusta. The Ottomans turned it into a mosque in the 16th century. Not it is known as Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque. © Gerrit Kurtz.

First impressions can be deceptive

Things are not always what they seem. This is also evident in the historical architecture of Northern Cyprus. Many powers have conquered Cyprus throughout its history, contributing towards its rich architectural heritage, which can be found in large Gothic churches in Famagusta and Nikosia. Built in the 13th century by the crusading Lusignan (French) that ruled Cyprus at the time, they seem somewhat at odds with their surrounding landscape. Indeed, they are the southern-most examples of brick-stone Gothic churches. However, they are not churches anymore. When the Ottomans conquered the island in 1571, they turned many of the existing places of worship into mosques. Before arriving at the Lala Mustafa Pasha Mosque in Famagusta, one can hear the call to prayer echoing across the square in front of the building.

A Turkish-funded mosque in Northern Cyprus. © Gerrit Kurtz.
A Turkish-funded mosque in Northern Cyprus. © Gerrit Kurtz.

Yet today, Turkish Cypriots are not very religious; rarely can the mosques in the medieval halls be filled. At a recent evening prayer in Nikosia’s main mosque (that used to be the St Sophia Cathedral), barely thirty people follow the calls of the imam. Across Northern Cyprus, newly built white mosques dot the landscape; smaller ones along the villages, and bigger ones in the cities. These new mosques are a visible sign of the influence of Turkey’s Islamic Justice and Development Party (AKP) government, which has funded many new mosques in the past fifteen years in Northern Cyprus. They usually remain empty.

The Islamic influence sits uncomfortably with the secular Cypriots, who tend to revere the secularist Kemal Atatürk, the founder of modern Turkey. Dozens of statues, busts, and larger-than-life photos of Atatürk attest not so much to the nationalism of Turkish Cypriots, but to their secular, Kemalist antics. Just another sign that first impressions can be deceptive–the display of a Turkish nationalist leader can actually be a sign of tensions with the Turkish mainland.

The division cuts streets in half, but life continues as if nothing happened. Café at the UN Buffer Zone in Southern Nikosia, Republic of Cyprus. © Gerrit Kurtz.
The division cuts streets in half, but life continues as if nothing happened. Café at the UN Buffer Zone in Southern Nikosia, Republic of Cyprus. © Gerrit Kurtz.

Perceptions matter

A Western fast food chain pretending to be a non-branded restaurant, an economy built on  dubious entertainment and higher education industry, churches turned into mosques, and a building boom of new mosques giving the impression of a very pious society–all are related to the status of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus that pretends to be a state, but lacks international recognition. While the two leaders of the Republic of Cyprus and Northern Cyprus have publicly announced that they want to conclude their current negotiations by the end of this year, observers voiced serious questions whether that was possible and whether reunification is a plausible prospect.

Acting as if the situation was temporary but stable has been the North’s practice since the war in 1974. In the meantime, its society has grown more independent. Identities are a matter of construction, as our Turkish Cypriot guide points out: “Towards Turkey, they are more Cypriot, towards the Greeks they are more Turkish, and towards everyone else they are just Turkish Cypriots.“

A bright future? Street in the old town of Northern Nikosia. © Gerrit Kurtz
A bright future? Street in the old town of Northern Nikosia. © Gerrit Kurtz

Gerrit Kurtz is a PhD Candidate at the War Studies Department, King’s College London. He recently attended the Cyprus Course of the Research School on Peace and Conflict Studies by the Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), of which he is a member. His publications can be found at 

Diplomaten an die Front! Krisenprävention braucht das richtige Personal

Die Bundesregierung braucht mehr Diplomaten in Krisenländern. In krisengeschüttelten Staaten kommt diesen eine Schlüsselrolle zu, um die häufig beklagte Lücke zwischen Frühwarnung und entschiedenem Handeln zu überbrücken. Das deutsche Botschaftspersonal braucht eine bessere Vorbereitung, zusätzliche Ressourcen und ein offenes Ohr in der Zentrale.

This post appeared on the PeaceLab2016 Blog.

Innerstaatliche Krisen entstehen in der Regel vor Ort, zwischen polarisierten Eliten einer Gesellschaft oder als Folge einer marginalisierten Opposition. Lange bevor Entscheidungen des Bundestags über den Einsatz militärischer Mittel anstehen, verdichten sich Zeichen, dass unterdrückte Gruppen Frustration anstauen oder scheinbar stabile Systeme vom Wohl und Wehe autoritärer Herrscher abhängig sind. Neben der eher langfristig angelegten Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, welche konsequent konfliktentschärfend ausgerichtet sein sollte, ist der politische Dialog das Kerngeschäft von Diplomaten.

Gute Diplomaten können die Lücke zwischen Warnung und Reaktion schließen

Eine zentrale Herausforderung in der Krisenprävention ist die häufig identifizierte Lücke zwischen Warnung und einer entschiedenen Reaktion. Dabei greifen die Forderungen wie die von Simon Adams auf diesem Blog zu kurz, die lediglich einen stärkeren „politischen Willen“ einfordern und sich auf normative oder historische Gründe berufen, aus denen Deutschland sich stärker engagierten sollte. Die politischen Zielkonflikte um finanzielle und politische Ressourcen sind real, wie Philipp Rotmann in seinem PeaceLab2016-Beitrag feststellt. Hochrangige Besuche des Außenministers oder Anrufe der Kanzlerin bei Staatschefs, die sich gegen die Aufarbeitung von Menschenrechtsverletzungen wehren, müssen abgewogen werden gegenüber dem Einsatz in bereits lodernden Krisenfeuern oder zu innenpolitisch wichtigeren Themen. Investitionen in Krisenprävention sind hochgradig unsicher. Zudem laufen sie Gefahr, die bilateralen Beziehungen mit der jeweiligen Regierung oder involvierten Nachbarstaaten zu beeinträchtigen.

Frühwarnung ist ein Überzeugungsprozess innerhalb der bürokratischen Maschinerie. Hier kann es leicht zu organisatorischen Engpässen kommen, bevor die politische Leitung weiteren Maßnahmen zustimmt. Die Steuerung von politischen Prozessen tausende Kilometer entfernt von der eigenen Hauptstadt ist nicht allein über Anweisungen und politische Stellungnahmen möglich. Ein größerer operativer Spielraum für Diplomaten in Krisenländern ist daher eine zentrale Voraussetzung für ein aktives Krisenengagement.

Aktiv einmischen und Netzwerke nutzen

Krisenerprobte Diplomaten können auf Erfahrungen in anderen Ländern zurückgreifen und Gelegenheiten erkennen, Eskalationsspiralen umzukehren und die handelnden Akteure zu einer konstruktiven Streitbeilegung zu ermutigen. Sie können die Regierung oder Oppositionsgruppen mit Nichtregierungsorganisationen in Verbindung setzen, sich mit Konfliktparteien ohne größere politische Aufmerksamkeit treffen und, theoretisch zumindest, dabei mit dem notwendigen Taktgefühl hantieren. Im Gegensatz zu nichtstaatlichen Organisationen verfügen sie mitunter über erhebliches politisches Gewicht und können mit staatlichen Akteuren auf gleicher Ebene verhandeln.

Präventiv tätig zu sein bedeutet jedoch, sich in laufende politische Auseinandersetzungen des betreffenden Landes einzumischen. Hier ist Bedachtsamkeit unabdingbar, um den Konflikt nicht zu verschärfen. Diplomaten werden passende Gelegenheiten, sich einzumischen, nur erkennen und erhalten, wenn sie bereits zu „normalen“ Zeiten ein weites Netz an Kontakten unterhalten, das über die der Regierung nahe stehenden Eliten hinausgeht. Belastbare Beziehungen zahlen sich gerade in Krisenzeiten aus.

Das Botschaftspersonal muss dem sich selbst bestätigenden Kreis von Diplomaten, Unternehmern, Journalisten und Regierungsmitarbeitern regelmäßig entfliehen, um festgefahrene Vorurteile über die politische Dynamik eines Landes aufzubrechen. So waren viele westliche Botschaften während des Umsturzes in Ägypten Anfang 2011 überrascht, dass die Mehrheit der Demonstranten keine Islamisten waren. Die Regierung hatte lange genug davon gesprochen, dass die einzige Alternative zur Herrschaft Mubaraks die Muslimbruderschaft sei.

Auslandsvertretungen brauchen mehr und besser ausgebildetes Personal

Das Auswärtige Amt muss Maßnahmen treffen, um die Auslandsvertretungen zu stärken. Dazu gehört ganz grundsätzlich, Krisenposten ernster zu nehmen und mit ausreichend dauerhaftem Personal auszustatten. Zum Beispiel arbeiten viel zu wenige deutsche Diplomaten vor Ort oder in den Nachbarländern im Irak oder zu Syrien. Darüber hinaus sollten die Leitlinien drei Bereiche stärken: Vorbereitung, Ressourcenbereitstellung und Organisationskultur.

Angehende deutsche Diplomaten genießen eine ausführliche Ausbildung zu Beginn ihrer Karriere. Ein Jahr lang pauken sie am Tegeler See Völkerrecht, volkswirtschaftliche Grundlagen, Konsularrecht, Umgang mit der Presse und Sprachen. Doch krisenrelevante Fähigkeiten kommen häufig zu kurz. Erst dieses Jahr führte das Auswärtige Amt ein Mediationstraining für die Attachés (und ein separates Training für erfahrene Diplomaten) ein. Die Postenvorbereitung wird zu großen Teilen den Betroffenen selbst überlassen. Gespräche mit Länderreferenten und den Vorgängern sind richtig, aber Sprachkenntnisse kommen häufig zu kurz. Kein deutscher Diplomat, keine deutsche Diplomatin sollte in ein arabisches Land geschickt werden ohne zumindest Grundkenntnisse der Sprache zu besitzen.

In vielen Staaten, in denen innerstaatliche Konflikte drohen, verfügt Deutschland nur über kleine oder gar keine Vertretungen (mehr). In größeren Staaten nehmen die sonstigen Beziehungen einen großen Teil der Arbeit ein. Daher ist es wichtig, Auslandsvertretungen im Zweifel mit schnell verfügbaren Ressourcen zu unterstützen:

  • der Bereitstellung von Expertise und Ausarbeitungen, die über die Kapazitäten eines einzelnen Länderreferenten, der vielleicht noch für mehre Länder gleichzeitig zuständig ist, hinausgehen;
  • wenn nötig auch der Entsendung von zusätzlichen Mitarbeitern, die gegebenenfalls besondere Fähigkeiten wie Konfliktanalyse oder Mediation abdecken können, oder einfach die Botschaftsleitung entlasten können bei Koordinationstreffen mit anderen internationalen Partnern.

Kleinstprojekte, über deren Vergabe die Botschaften selbst entscheiden können, sind ein weiteres Mittel mit dem Auslandsvertretungen direkt konfliktvermindernde Projekte durchführen können. Die Auswahl der Projekte sollte sich jedoch nicht allein danach richten, welche Organisation die meisten Schlüsselwörter in ihrem Antrag verwendet oder wo man eine Plakette draufkleben kann.

Zuletzt ist eine aktivere diplomatische Präventionsarbeit nicht allein eine Frage der ausreichenden Vorbereitung und materiellen Ausstattung, sondern eine Sache der grundlegenden Einstellung der Diplomaten. Die Leitlinien oder länderspezifische Weisungen der Zentrale können nicht jeden Einzelfall regeln; sie bleiben notwendigerweise abstrakt. Staatssekretäre und Abteilungsleiter sollten eine Organisationskultur fördern, die internen Austausch über Hierarchien und Abteilungen hinweg belohnt, konstruktiv-kritische Berichte ernstnimmt und Eigeninitiative der Auslandsvertretungen gerade im Bereich Krisenprävention anregt. Der Review2014 Prozess hat hier bereits die richtigen Weichen gestellt. Nun gilt es sicherzustellen, dass dieser Wandel auch an den Botschaften umgesetzt wird.

Immer wieder den eigenen Ansatz hinterfragen

Eine aktive diplomatische Rolle in innerstaatlichen Konflikten läuft stets Gefahr, Krisen zu verschärfen, oder doch zumindest zu neuen Problemen zu führen. Zu häufig ist internationales Engagement gekennzeichnet von Stereotypen, Vorurteilen und Templates, obwohl sich Geber weltweit vorgenommen haben, „local ownership“ zu priorisieren. Den eigenen Ansatz regelmäßig zu hinterfragen und Ortskräfte auch in strategische Überlegungen einzubeziehen ist ein wichtiger Anfang – wie auch Cornelia Brinkmann in ihrem PeaceLab2016-Beitrag argumentierte. Am Ende gilt: auch wenn die Einflussmöglichkeiten deutscher Diplomatie begrenzt sind, sollten Diplomaten ihren Spielraum ausschöpfen. Sonst bleiben die hehren Ziele der Leitlinien nur Papier.

Die Gegenwart der Geschichte in Sarajevo

Sarajevo Taube Graffiti
„Meine Stadt ist international vor allem für drei Dinge bekannt: die Ermordung des Erzherzogs Franz Ferdinands im Juni 1914, die den Anlass zum Ausbruch des Ersten Weltkriegs gab; die dreieinhalbjährige Belagerung während der 1990er Jahre und die olympischen Winterspiele von 1984,“ verkündete Neno, freiberuflicher Stadtführer in Sarajevo, der Hauptstadt Bosnien und Herzegowinas. „Ich will euch zeigen, dass es in meiner Stadt noch mehr zu sehen gibt.“
Sagte Neno und führte die gut dreißig Touristen in seiner Gruppe als erstes zu einer „Sarajevo Rose“, einem rot ausgemalten Einschlagskrater der serbischen Artillerie, welcher Zivilisten zum Opfer gefallen waren. Nach Ende der Belagerung wurden rund einhundert dieser Krater in dieser Weise markiert. Sie erinnern noch mehr als zwanzig Jahre nach Ende der Belagerung an die alltäglichen Opfer der Bewohner von Sarajevo.
Den Spuren des Zerfallskrieges Jugoslawiens kann man hier nicht entkommen, schließlich wütete er in Bosnien und Herzegowina mit besonderer Brutalität. Gleichzeitig hat Neno recht: Sarajevo lässt sich nicht nur über Kriege definieren, sondern auch über Jahrhunderte religiöser Toleranz und des friedlichen Zusammenlebens. Diesen Eindruck konnte ich auch während meines Besuchs in der Stadt gewinnen, und er verdient es, weiterverbreitet zu werden. Die historischen Ereignisse in Sarajevo haben gerade in diesen Tagen eine besondere Aktualität.

At this corner, Gavrilo Princip shot Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sofia on 28 June 1914.
An dieser Ecke fielen die folgenreichsten Schüsse des 20. Jahrhunderts.

Was wäre, wenn
Nach dem Rückzug der Osmanen stand Bosnien und Herzegowina seit 1878 unter der Herrschaft Österreich-Ungarns. Wie die vielen prächtigen Fassaden in der Innenstadt noch heute bezeugen, war dies eine Zeit der Modernisierung. Die Donaumonarchie führte sogar die erste Straßenbahnlinie in ihrem Reich in Sarajevo ein; sie diente später Wien zum Vorbild. Doch die Besatzung stieß auf Widerstand bei nationalistisch gesinnten Serben. Als am 28. Juni 1914 der österreich-ungarische Thronfolger Franz Ferdinand mit seiner Frau Sophia Sarajevo besuchte, witterte der erst 19jährige bosnische Serbe Gavrilo Princip zusammen mit seinen sechs Mitverschwörern seine Chance. Soweit kannte ich die Geschichte, aber Neno erzählte uns die ganze Dramatik des Sommertages vor 102 Jahren, während wir unter einem schattenspendenden Baum schräg gegenüber der Brücke standen, an deren Ecke das Attentat stattfand.
„Von dort hinten kam der offene Wagen mit Franz Ferdinand und seiner Frau angefahren“, sagte er, während er auf die Uferstraße den Fluss hinunter wies. Links und rechts winkten dem Paar Schaulustige zu, als es knallte. Ein Attentäter hatte eine Bombe auf die Wagenkolonne des Thronfolgers geworfen. Er traf aber nur einen Begleitwagen. Mit Hochgeschwindigkeit fuhr der Wagen mit Franz Ferdinand die wenigen hundert Meter weiter zum Rathaus, wo er offizielle Treffen hatte. Dort angekommen verkündete Franz Ferdinand, das Treffen kurz zu halten und möglichst bald zurück zu fahren, um die Verwundeten im Krankenhaus zu besuchen.
Derweil setzte sich Princip in ein Café an der Straße, an welcher der Wagen gerade an ihm vorbeigesaust war. Wegen des allgemeinen Chaos und der Geschwindigkeit des Wagens hatte Princip nicht schießen können. So trank er jetzt frustriert einen Kaffee. Das Attentat schien gescheitert.
Doch kaum hatte er sich versehen, stand plötzlich der Wagen direkt vor ihm auf der Straße. Der Fahrer hatte angehalten, weil er nicht wusste, dass Franz Ferdinand zum Krankenhaus fahren wollte und nun wenden musste. Kurz entschlossen nahm Princip seine Pistole und erschoss Thronfolger und Gemahlin. Sie verbluteten noch am selben Tag.
Das Attentat führte zur sogenannten Julikrise 1914 – Österreich-Ungarn erklärte Serbien den Krieg, welches zum Kriegseintritt fast aller weiteren europäischen Mächte aufgrund ihrer Bündnisverpflichtungen führte. Der Erste Weltkrieg begann.

Holiday Inn Hotel, aus dem die ersten Schüsse des Bürgerkriegs fielen
Holiday Inn Hotel, aus dem die ersten Schüsse des Bürgerkriegs fielen

Leben unter Belagerung

78 Jahre später begann ein neuer Krieg in Sarajevo. Am 5. April 1992, wenige Wochen nachdem eine Mehrheit für die Unabhängigkeit der früheren jugoslawischen Teilrepublik gestimmt hatte, versammelte sich eine Menschenmenge in Sarajevo, um gegen den heraufziehenden Krieg zu demonstrieren. Als sie am Parlament vorbeizogen, flogen Schüsse aus dem Holiday Inn Hotel auf die Demonstranten und töteten zwei Menschen. Kurze Zeit später blockierten bosnisch-serbische Einheiten alle Zugänge zur Stadt, die in einem Kessel liegt, und der bosnische Bürgerkrieg begann. Die bosnischen Serben zerstörten bald die Hauptpost, die auch die Zentrale für alle Telefonverbindungen der Stadt war, und ein wichtiges Kraftwerk. Fortan gab es kaum Elektrizität. Wasser, das elektrische Pumpen benötigte um in die Haushalte zu gelangen, konnte fortan nur noch per Lastwagen geliefert werden. Die Belagerung der Stadt hielt 44 Monate lang an und wurde damit zur längsten Belagerung des 20. Jahrhunderts.
Auch mehr als 20 Jahre nach Ende des Bürgerkriegs kann man über Sarajevo nicht sprechen ohne die Belagerung zu erwähnen. Zu viele Häuser, insbesondere außerhalb des unmittelbaren Stadtzentrums, weisen noch Einschusslöcher und Spuren von Schrapnell auf. Überall finden sich Plaketten und Monumente für die Opfer: mehr als 11.000 Tote sind namentlich bekannt. Ich hatte zur Einstimmung  ein Buch über das tägliche Leben der Bewohner einer Straße in Sarajevo gelesen („Besieged“ von der BBC-Journalistin Barbara Demick, die immer wieder während des Krieges Zeit in der Stadt verbrachte). Dank Demicks eindringlicher Schilderung nahm ich auf diese Weise einige Orte besonders war. Da ist die mittlerweile vollständig sanierte Markthalle, in deren Nähe sich zwei der größten Massaker der Belagerung ereigneten. Die Brauerei, deren deutschsprachiges Schild auf ihre Errichtung zu österreich-ungarischer Zeit verweist, produzierte nicht nur den ganzen Krieg hindurch sein frisches Pils, sondern funktionierte vor allem als Verteilerstelle von Frischwasser, da sie über eine eigene Wasserquelle verfügt.

Monument für humanitäre Hilfe während der Belagerung
Monument für humanitäre Hilfe während der Belagerung

In einem Museum sah ich die Ofen, welche viele der Bewohner Sarajevos sich selbst zusammen zimmerten und darin nach und nach alles verbrannten, was warm hielt: Regalbretter, Parkbänke, Plastikmüll, und irgendwann auch Bücher. Die Stadt ist umringt von dicht bewaldeten Hügeln, aber diese wurden allesamt von serbischen Einheiten kontrolliert. Hinter dem Museum steht eine überdimensionierte Dose mit konserviertem Rindfleisch auf einem Sockel: ein Denkmal für die humanitären Hilfslieferungen, welche die Vereinten Nationen während der Belagerung über den Flughafen in die Stadt bringen konnten. Dazu zählten auch Kekse und Trockenfleisch aus den 1970er Jahren: Restbestände der US-Armee aus Zeiten des Vietnamkrieges. Zusätzlich bauten einige Menschen selbst Gemüse an; ein Paar in der Logavinastraße, von der das Buch handelt, riss dafür seine Garageneinfahrt auf: angesichts unerschwinglicher Benzinpreise würden sie das Auto ohnehin nicht benutzen.
Das Leben spielte sich drinnen ab: „Ich habe mehre Jahre meiner Kindheit im Keller unseres Wohnhauses verbracht“, erzählte Neno. Draußen drohten Scharfstützen und Artillerieeinschläge. Unterricht gab es trotzdem, soweit es ging, und nicht sehr häufig. Mit kleinen Gesten zeigten die Menschen ihren Widerstand. Frauen trugen Make-up und Stöckelschuhe, wenn sie Wasser holten. Aus den Vietnamkeksen und Grundnahrungsmitteln ersannen sie Kriegsrezepte für Kuchen. In einem Dokumentarfilm aus der Zeit, den eine Ausstellung zeigte, spielten vielleicht zehnjährige Kinder mit großer Fantasie in einem zerschossenen Auto. „Welche Radiostation willst du hören?“ fragen sie in fließendem Englisch den Filmemacher und fangen an Lieder verschiedener Genres zu singen: „Country? Rock’n Roll? Italienische Musik?”

Tunnel Museum
Tunnel Museum

Der einzige offizielle Zugang zur belagerten Stadt war der Flughafen, welchen Friedenstruppen der Vereinten Nationen kontrollierten. Allerdings mussten diese sicherstellen, dass keine Menschen über den Flughafen fliehen oder diesen für militärische Zwecke verwerden. So errichtete das bosnische Militär einen 800 Meter langen Tunnel, der unter dem Flughafengelände hindurch führte. Auf diese Weise konnten Lebensmittel, militärisches Material, und vor allem Soldaten in die Stadt kommen. Viele junge männliche Bewohner Sarajevos wurden zur Armee eingezogen und kämpften an der nahe gelegenen Front, durften aber alle ein bis zwei Wochen nach Hause. Unser Wanderführer, mit dem ich an einem Tag eine Wanderung an der Grenze zu Montenegro machte, gehörte auch dazu. Er berichtete uns, wie er den niedrigen Tunnel hunderte Male durchquert habe und in den Wäldern Ostbosniens kämpfte – ohne verletzt zu werden. Dabei war die bosnische Armee vollkommen unterbewaffnet: mehrere Leute teilten sich ein Gewehr, während die Serben alle 35 Meter einen Panzer oder Mörser um Sarajevo stationiert hatten.
Der größte Teil des Tunnels ist heute eingestürzt, aber ein etwa fünfundzwanzig Meter langer Teil lässt sich durchqueren. Der Zugang liegt unter einem Wohnhaus – der Tunnel war ein militärisches Geheimnis, auch wenn die bosnischen Serben davon wussten: das Haus ist überseht mit Einschusslöchern.

Gazi Husrev Beg Moschee
Gazi Husrev Beg Moschee

„Wo sich Ost und West treffen”

Die allgegenwärtigen Kriegsspuren schafften es dennoch nicht, den Geist der Stadt zu brechen. Die Berichte über ethnische Auseinandersetzungen während des Jugoslawienkrieges täuschen leicht darüber hinweg, aber Sarajevo ist stets eine multikulturelle, multireligiöse Stadt gewesen. Im Stadtzentrum gibt es einen Platz, von dem aus eine osmanische Moschee, eine orthodoxe Kirche, eine katholische Kathedrale und eine jüdische Synagoge in nicht mehr als fünf Minuten zu erreichen sind. Eine Markierung auf dem Boden zeigt die alte Stadtgrenze des osmanischen Sarajevo, an dessen vierhundert Jahre alte Markthallen und Gassen eine moderne Einkaufsstraße anschließt: „wo sich Ost und West treffen“ steht auf dem Boden. Das ist sehr plakativ, die Wirklichkeit ist gemischter.
400 Jahre osmanische Herrschaft lassen sich nicht als bloße Besatzung bezeichnen. So war Gazi Husrev Beg, welcher im frühen sechzehnten Jahrhundert eine Art Gouverneur Bosniens war, Sohn eines bosnischen Muslims und einer Sultanstochter. Husrev Beg stiftete eine ganze Reihe von öffentlichen Gebäuden in Sarajevo, wie die nach ihm benannte Moschee, eine Bibliothek, Brunnen, ein Bad und eine religiöse Schule (Madrasa). Die mit seinem Vermögen angelegte Stiftung existiert bis heute und betreibt die genannten Einrichtungen.
Die Moschee liegt inmitten eines belebten Marktviertels, dem am stärksten touristisch geprägten Teil der Stadt. Im Vergleich zu einem türkischen Basar, wie ich ihn zum Beispiel aus Izmir oder Bodrum kenne, geht es hier aber recht geordnet zu. Heute gibt es auch mehr Cafés und Restaurants und Souvenirshops als Handwerker, die ihre eigenen Arbeiten hier früher verkauften. Die schwarz verschleierten Frauen, die mit Einkaufstausche vor ihrem Glas Wasser sitzen, sind in der Regel Touristen aus den Golfstaaten: die Bosnier pflegen einen ziemlich liberalen Islam. Fünfmal am Tag klingen die inbrünstigen Rufe des Muezzin zum Gebet in einer der vielen Moscheen, aber dem Trubel zu Fuße der aus den Dächern hervorragenden Minarette tut dies keinen Abbruch. Es ist so alltäglich wie das ebenfalls gegenwärtige Kirchenglockenläuten; nur dem deutschen Besucher ist es ungewohnt. Religion wird in Sarajevo traditionell als soziale Angelegenheit verstanden: man besucht zusammen den Weihnachtsgottesdienst, gleich welchem Glauben man angehört, und feiert das Ende des Ramadan mit seinen Nachbarn.

Osmanisches Markviertel
Osmanisches Markviertel

Dies ist denn auch der Eindruck, der für mich überwiegt. Oberflächlich wirkt Sarajevo heute wie eine geteilte Stadt. Es gibt zwar keine Grenze, aber wer den bosnisch-kroatischen Teil der Stadt verlässt, wird von einem großen Schild in der Republika Srpska, der bosnisch-serbischen Teilrepublik des Landes begrüßt – auf der Gegenseite gibt es solche Schilder nicht. Serbische Fahnen lassen Zweifel an der Loyalität der Bewohner zum bosnisch-herzegowinischen Gesamtstaat aufkommen. Doch die Kinder gehen in gemischte Schulen, auch wenn es noch an einer gemeinsamen Geschichtsschreibung mangelt.
In der Stadt wie im gesamten Land gibt es ohne Zweifel erhebliche Probleme und anhaltende Streitigkeiten. Das Dayton-Abkommen von 1995 brachte zwar Frieden, aber zementierte auch die ethnische Spaltung des Landes. Sie erschwert das Regieren erheblich. Es gibt drei gleichberechtigte Präsidenten, die sich alle sechs Monate mit dem Vorsitz der Präsidentschaft abwechseln. Jede Volksgruppe hat ihre eigenen Parteien, von denen viele eher die Unterschiede als die Gemeinsamkeiten zwischen Serben, Kroaten und bosnischen Muslimen betonen. „Alles ist besser als Krieg“, kommentiert Mustafa, der Wanderführer, die politische Situation in seinem Land.

Von Italien gestiftetes Denkmal für ein friedliches Zusammenleben der Völker
Von Italien gestiftetes Denkmal für ein friedliches Zusammenleben der Völker

Sarajevos Geschichte hat uns heute viel zu lehren: über Bündnispolitik und Krisenmanagement, über militärische Interventionen, Waffenembargos und gerechten Frieden, über religiöse Vielfalt in einer liberalen Gesellschaft. Mögen wir die richtigen Schlüsse daraus ziehen.

Protecting civilians as a common endeavour: DGVN expert workshop in Braunschweig
(c) MONUSCO/ UN Photo

I wrote this piece as a summary of our expert workshop and network meeting on “Protection of individuals from harm as a system-wide challenge for the United Nations” that took place in Braunschweig in July 2016. It first appeared on the Junge UN-Forschung Blog.

Securing access to besieged areas of Aleppo, increasing patrols around UN House in Juba, or ending refugee maltreatment in Australian detention centres in Nauru: the protection of civilians from immediate harm is one of the core tasks of the United Nations system. There are few issues for which UN actors are so frequently in the news. Senior UN officials routinely criticize state authorities and non-state actors responsible for violence against civilians. Too often, the UN are in the spotlight themselves because they failed to live up to the expectations and responsibilities related to the protection of civilians, for example at the protection of civilians site in Malakal, South Sudan in February this year.

Research on how to better protect civilians from harm is essential in order to enable the UN to fulfil their charter-based mandate: creating a safer, fairer and more prosperous world for all. In this vein, we organized an expert workshop and network meeting on the common theme „Protecting civilians as system-wide challenge for the United Nations“, which took place from 15 to 17 July at the Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Germany. It brought together around 20 junior scholars from Germany, Europe, the United States, and Brazil in order to facilitate academic exchange and build a network of scholars around the topic. The workshop was designed to take into account perspectives from three major policy fields: humanitarian action, peacekeeping, and human rights. It took place in the context of the German Association of the United Nations and its working group on young UN research.

At a public panel discussion, a dedicated break-out session and the presentation of our own preliminary research, we discussed the distinction between the three policy fields of humanitarian action, peacekeeping, and human rights, as well as open questions and debates within those fields. As the workshop itself took place under Chatham House rules, we only quote from the public panel discussion, and provide a general sense of the discussion during the rest of the event.

Discussing the results of the breakout session
Discussing the results of the breakout session

Humanitarian action, peacekeeping, and human rights perspectives

The official definition of protection approved by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) for humanitarian action is much too broad for practical purposes. A tiered, increasingly ambitious understanding of protection is more helpful in that regard: ensuring access to humanitarian aid is the most basic definition of humanitarian protection, followed by ensuring access to protection services. More contentious are the roles humanitarian agencies can play in putting a stop to on-going rights violations, or even in furthering international criminal justice through witness statements and the collection of evidence. For Médecins Sans Frontières, protection frequently equates to really taking the principle of doing no harm seriously, said the director of the agency’s German chapter, Florian Westphal, at the panel discussion. Providing aid to displaced persons must not help armed groups locate them. The public and private advocacy that humanitarian organisations like MSF engage in always needs to make sure that people are actually better protected, even when the agencies want to ensure that they are not being seen as complicit with violations because of their (public) silence, Westphal argued.

UN peacekeeping is a highly political undertaking, even if senior UN officials and member states don’t always recognize it as such, claimed Peter Schumann, former chief of staff of the UN Mission in Sudan and long-term UNDP staff member. As the UN peace operation in South Sudan showed, too often member states create over-ambitious mandates without sufficient resources and political backing to meet the high expectations that the mission will actually protect the population from immediate threats of violence. UN peacekeeping operates largely according to a short-term logic: creating physical security for civilians, responding to their immediate needs. This may sit uncomfortably with the long-term requirement to develop a political strategy, for which the military can create space and which helps the warring parties move to a peaceful way to settle their disputes. Moreover, rhetorical commitments to the effective protection of civilians and national policies of member states in the Security Council as well as of individual troop contributing countries may differ significantly. Germany’s recent evacuation of its police personnel that was supposed to protect women and children as part of the UN Mission in South Sudan was one example mentioned at the workshop.

Human rights agencies have the most long-term perspective of the three policy fields. The Office of the High Commissioner of Human Rights (OHCHR), for example stresses not only that states have a primary responsibility to protect their populations from harm (as do humanitarian and peacekeeping actors). The methods OHCHR lists in its most recent management plan aim to enable rights-holders exercise their rights and to build the capacities of duty-bearers to guarantee fundamental human rights. Someone is always bound by human rights, and someone else is always entitled, as the break out group on human rights protection put it. However, some actors put themselves deliberately outside the international legal system, such as the so-called Islamic State or North Korea. Protecting those who defend human rights on the ground is an important, concrete task for international actors such as peace brigades international, said Christiane Schultz, who founded the organisation’s German section. The Committee on enforced disappearances can issue urgent measures, for example, and conduct country visits to raise individual cases and instigate structural change.

Over the three-day workshop, it became clear that protecting populations from harm is a hugely ambitious and complex undertaking. In all policy fields, there are gaps between rhetorical commitments and implementing promises on the ground. There can be differences between individual mandate-holders, national peacekeeping contingents, missions, institutions, and policy fields.

The main impediment to better protection are not the differences about the meaning, methods and objectives of protection per se – they are the natural and inevitable consequence of varying mandates and contexts. Rather, it is the lack of mutual understanding that leads to gaps in the protection architecture. It also misses out on opportunities to jointly tackle common challenges and recognise each other’s complementarity, in full recognition of their distinct mandates. Thus, there is much to learn from each other. Academic and policy exchange on the theme of protecting civilians from harm needs to intensify (for example here).

Vom Marinestützpunkt zur Luxusriviera

Die Bucht von Kotor in Montenegro diente bereits in der Antike als Marinestützpunkt. Heute ersetzen Luxusjachten und Kreuzfahrtschiffe das Militär, aber der jahrhundertelange Einfluss fremder Mächte hat viele Spuren hinterlassen.

Bucht von Kotor, gesehen von der Festung St. Johan
Bucht von Kotor, gesehen von der Festung St. Johann

Der Blick war überwältigend. Wie ein Keil roter Dächer ragte 280 Meter unter mir die Altstadt von Kotor in die Meeresbucht hinein. Ein breites, tiefblaues Band zog sich bis zum Horizont, wo der innerste und am besten geschützte Teil der Bucht sich durch eine nur wenige hundert Meter breite Enge zum äußeren Becken der Bucht öffnet. Links und rechts erhoben sich steile Abhänge mit schroffen, herausstehenden Felsen, nur leicht mit Bäumen und Gestrüpp grün gesprenkelt. Ich stand auf den Ruinen der Festung von Sankt Johann (San Giovanni), einer venezianischen Befestigungsanlage, die im 15. Jahrhundert errichtet wurde – an einer Stelle, an der bereits die vorrömischen Illyrer Verteidigungsanlagen errichtet hatten.
Die Bucht von Kotor erinnert an norwegische Fjorde, nur wurde sie nicht durch einen Gletscher, sondern durch einen Fluss geschaffen. Durch ihr tiefes Wasser ist sie bis zum Ende schiffbar für Hochseeschiffe. Zu jugoslawischer Zeit lagen an den steilen Hängen mehrere Militärstützpunkte für Titos Flotte; heute kommen Kreuzfahrtschiffe und Luxusjachten hier rein geschippert. Sandalenbewehrte Touristen und breite Sonnenbrillen tragende Jachteigner schlendern nunmehr durch die engen Gassen Kotors und die neu angelegten Promenaden an der 28 Kilometer langen Bucht. Die allgegenwärtige Strandurlaubsatmosphäre verdeckt nur auf den ersten Blick die tiefen Spuren, welche fremde Mächte über Jahrhunderte hier hinterlassen haben – und die Auseinandersetzung der Montenegriner mit diesen.

Promenade von Tivat
Promenade von Tivat

Untergekommen war ich in Tivat, das mit seinen 14.000 Einwohnern zu den mittelgroßen Städten Montenegros gehört. Zu jugoslawischer Zeit gab es hier eine große Schiffswerft, die jedoch in den 1990er Jahren mit dem Bundesstaat zerfiel. 2006 kaufte dann der kanadische Milliardär Peter Munk die Anlage. Sein Ziel: ein „Monaco an der Adria“ zu schaffen, „Porto Montenegro”. Nach erheblichen Investitionen waren bei meinem Besuch die Ähnlichkeiten unverkennbar: eine breite, extrem saubere und mit ausladenden Palmen gesäumte Promenade, Liegeplätze mit Dutzenden riesiger Jachten, Boutiquen, Hotelanlagen, Tennisplätze, ein Jachtclub, eine internationale Schule, selbst Französisch hörte ich häufiger in der Gegend.

Doch Montenegro ist weit entfernt von dem Reichtum des Stadtstaats Monaco; der durchschnittliche Bruttolohn liegt laut Statistikbehörde gerade einmal bei 755 € (Netto 502 €). Die meisten Bewohner Tivats werden sich die Cocktails, Designerkleidungen und Bootstouren nicht leisten können. So haben die Leute von Tivat ein gespaltenes Verhältnis zur Porto Montenegro. Natürlich sorgt die Anlage für lokales Wachstum, Arbeitsplätze und verbesserte Infrastruktur, aber einige hatten sich den Fortschritt doch irgendwie anders vorgestellt, meinten die Gastgeber in meiner Unterkunft.

Gornja Lastva
Gornja Lastva

Weg von dieser Umgebung führt eine schmale Straße das Bergmassiv Vrmac hinauf, das sich hinter Tivat erhebt. Nachdem ich die Häuser hinter mir gelassen habe, begegnen mir in anderthalb Stunden nicht mehr als eine Handvoll Autos in beiden Richtungen. Etwa 300 Meter über dem Meeresspiegel erreiche ich das Örtchen Gornja Lastva. Schmale, mit Schieferplatten befestige und teilweise überwachsene Wege führen zwischen den Häusern entlang. Ich sehe eine Reihe von zerfallenen Gebäuden, deren Bewohner schon lange weggezogen sind, aber auch einige Häuser, die anscheinend noch weiterhin bewohnt sind – auch wenn die meisten Bewohner mittlerweile ins Tal gezogen sind. Die sechshundert Jahre alte Kirche ist von Weitem zu sehen – in dem Vrmac Massiv zwischen Tivat und Kotor liegen noch mehr verlassene Weiler und sehr alte Kirchen. Am Ortseingang erinnert ein Gedenkstein an die „für Freiheit und Sozialismus 1941-45 gefallenen Soldaten“, darunter sechs mit dem gleichen Nachnamen. Im Zweiten Weltkrieg besetzten die Achsenmächte die adriatische Küste, die Bucht von Kotor wurde von Italien verwaltet. Partisanen kämpften jahrelang und am Ende erfolgreich für die Unabhängigkeit der Region.

Auf dem Weg von Tivat nach Kotor
Auf dem Weg von Tivat nach Kotor

Am nächsten Vormittag nehme ich den Bus nach Kotor. Der alte französische Postbus, in dem ein Schild darauf hinweist, dass Schwarzfahren mit 50 Francs bestraft wird, tuckert die schmale Uferstraße entlang. Die Straße führt in den inneren Teil der Bucht, an deren Ende die namensgebende Stadt liegt. Mit jeder Kurve werden die Felsen am gegenüberliegenden Ufer steiler und die Szenerie dramatischer. Das stark von der venezianischen Herrschaft zwischen dem 15. und 18. Jahrhundert geprägte Kotor scheint, so formuliert es mein Reiseführer, geradezu aus dem Felsen herauszuwachsen. Dicke Festungsmauern umgeben die Alstadt und über dem Haupttor erinnert eine Tafel mit Tito-Zitat an die Befreiung Kotors im November 1944.

Kotor selbst ist sehr touristisch geprägt. Palazzi und orthodoxe Kirchen dominieren das Stadtbild architektonisch. An einer Stelle zeigt eine Tafel den Ort eines Gefängnisses aus österreich-ungarischer Zeit an. Montenegro wurde 1918 zusammen mit den anderen fünf Teilrepubliken als Mitglied des Königtums Jugoslawiens unabhängig von der zerfallenden Donaumonarchie. Kotor ist ohne Zweifel eine hübsche Stadt, aber die vielen Tourismusagenturen, Restaurants, Cafes und Hotels – und die vielen Gäste der vor Anker liegenden Kreuzfahrtschiffe – lassen die eigentlichen Bewohner der Stadt vermissen. Andererseits  leben die meisten hier vom Tourismus; nicht wenige Montenegriner kommen nur während der Hochsaison her und müssen in ein paar Monaten genug verdienen, um damit über das ganze Jahr zu kommen.

Stausee im Norden Montenegros
Stausee im Norden Montenegros

Montenegro ist nicht nur ein zunehmend beliebtes Urlaubsland im westlichen Balkan; es ist demnächst auch unser militärischer Verbündeter. Im Mai unterzeichneten die 28 NATO-Mitgliedstaaten ein Beitrittsprotokoll mit Montenegro. Wenn alle Mitgliedstaaten dieses ratifiziert haben werden, wird Montenegro in ungefähr einem Jahr Mitglied des Militärbündnisses. Einige befürchten schon, dass dann wieder Marineschiffe in der Bucht von Kotor vor Anker gehen könnten. Gerade einmal 2.000 Menschen gehören dem montenegrinischem Militär an, das über Schiffe aus jugoslawischem Bestand verfügt, über 20 Hubschrauber und Landstreitkräfte. Der Beitritt hat somit eher symbolische Bedeutung. Er zeigt die anhaltende Attraktivität und Offenheit der NATO und er hindert Russland daran, die Bucht von Kotor für eigene militärische Zwecke zu nutzen.

Jenseits der strategischen und historischen Bedeutung des Landes lohnt ein Besuch dieses Flecken Erde vor allem wegen seiner beeindruckenden Landschaft. Dazu zählt nicht nur die Bucht von Kotor, sondern ein Großteil des insgesamt sehr bergigen Landes. Auf dem Weg in den Norden Montenegros fuhr ich an herrlichen Seen, grasbedeckten Ebenen zu Fuße von felsigen Hügeln, langen Stauseen umgeben von dunklen, bewaldeten Hängen und tiefen Schluchten mit kristallklarem Wasser entlang. Hinter der Bucht von Kotor ragen links und rechts der Straße spitze, haushohe Felsen in einer Ebene hervor. Im Durmitor Nationalpark liegt mit der Taraschlucht die zweittiefste Schlucht der Erde, in der ich eine adrenalingeladene Wildwasserfahrt unternahm.
Ein Besuch Montenegros ist also absolut lohnenswert und sollte sich nicht allein auf die touristisch am besten erschlossene Küste begrenzen.